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1. Seeds:

Seed is a critical and basic input for attaining higher crop yields and sustained growth in agricultural production. Distribution of assured quality seed is as critical as the production of such seeds. Unfortunately, good quality seeds are out of reach of the majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly because of exorbitant prices of better seeds.

2. Manures and Fertilizer

Indian soils have been used for growing crops over thousands of years without caring much for replenishing. This has led to depletion and exhaustion of soils resulting in their low productivity. The average yields of almost all the crops are among t e lowest in the world. This is a serious problem which can be solved by using more manures and fertilizers.

3. Lack of Mechanization

In spite of the large scale mechanization of agriculture in some parts of the country, most of the agricultural operations in larger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and conventional tool and implements like wooden plough, sickle, etc.

4. Soil erosion:

Large tracts of fertile land suffer from soil erosion by wind and water. This area must be properly treated and restored to its original fertility.

5. Agricultural marketing:

Agricultural marketing still continues to be in a bad shape in rural India. In the absence of sound marketing facilities, the farmers have to depend upon local traders and middlemen for the disposal of their farm produce which is sold at throw-away price.

6. Scarcity of Capital:

Agriculture is an important industry and like all other industries it also requires capital. The role of capital input is becoming more and more important with the advancement of farm technology. Since the agriculturists’ capital is locked up in his lands and stocks, he is obliged to borrow money for stimulating the tempo of agricultural production.

7. Cropping Pattern:

The cropping pattern which shows the proportion of the area under different crops at a definite point of time is an important indicator of development and diversification of the sector. Food crops and non-food or cash crops arc the two types of crops produced by the agricultural sector of the country. As the prices of the cash crops are becoming more and more attractive therefore, more and more land have been diverted from the production of food crops into cash or commercial crops. This has been creating the problem of food crisis in the country. Thus after 50 years planning the country has failed to evolve a balanced cropping pattern leading to faulty agricultural planning and its poor implementation.

8. Conditions of Agricultural Laborers:

Agriculture labors are the most exploited unorganized class in the rural population of the country. From the very beginnings landlords and Zamindars exploited for their benefits and converted some of them as slaves or bonded labors and forced to continue the system generation after generation. All these led to wretched condition total deprivation of the rural masses.

9. Poor Farming Techniques and Agricultural Practices:

The farmers in India have been adopting orthodox and inefficient method and technique of cultivation. It is only in recent years that the Indian farmers have started to adopt improved implements like steel ploughs, seed drills, barrows, hoes etc. to a limited extent only. Most of the farmers were relying on centuries old. Wooden plough and other implements. Such adoption of traditional methods is responsible for low agricultural productivity in the

10. Inadequate Irrigation Facilities:

Indian agriculture is still suffering from lack of assumed and controlled water supply through artificial irrigation facilities. Thus the Indian farmers have to depend much upon rainfall which is neither regular nor even. Whatever irrigation potential that has been developed in our country, a very limited number of our farmers can avail the facilities.